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In English the word ‘man’ is ambiguous between a) adult human male, b) human being or person in general, and c) the abstract sense of ‘humanity’. Which is intended has to be determined from the context. In ancient Hebrew, Greek and Latin, however, there are different terms for each, thus the species kind is referred to by dm, anthropos and homo, respectively. This sometimes misleads readers who assume that when ancient or medieval writers speak of ‘man’ they are privileging the male over the female which need not be the case. Thus, the famous syllogism ‘Socrates is a man’, all men are mortal, therefore Socrates is mortal’ is not intended to concern only males, and in the anthropos sense it would be equally sound to argue with respect to Socrates’s wife ‘Xanthippe is a man, all men are mortal, therefore Xanthippe is mortal’. The question, therefore, of whether ancient writers are ‘sexist’ is not answered simply by pointing to English translations which use the word ‘man’ where we might prefer now prefer ‘human being’ or ‘humanity’. In Genesis, the first book of the Hebrew bible, the term ‘Adam’ is not exclusively male but is used in all three of the senses mentioned above: an adult male, a human being, and humanity; and in the New Testament where Paul writes as in “Adam all men died so in Christ are all men raised up” (I Corinthians) “all men” translates the Greek anthropou and Latin hominem, and not words for male human. Likewise for the phrase ‘son of man’ in old and new testaments: ‘man’ = mankind. All of that said there is evidence that in Judaism and early Christianity, and in Greek philosophy males were thought to be prior and /or superior to females. Genesis states that God created humankind by creating Adam, but then seeing that he needed a partner God took one of Adam’s ribs and made a woman (Eve) out of it. Here woman appears as an ‘afterthought ‘and is physically derived from man. Also, in I Corinthians Paul writes that women should be silent in church and in submission to their husbands. In philosophy, Plato regarded men and women as equal in intellectual and moral respects . His student Aristotle, however, states that human embryos are naturally male and it is only when there is a transformation that females result. He also thought that the qualities of the two sexes are different but those of males are superior. In short the theological and philosophical sources are mixed. Moving from historical ideas to the present, the task of philosophical anthropology is to give a broad and deep descriptive and explanatory account of human beings. The question is whether there are significant differences between men and women has been much discussed in recent times. The primary and secondary sexual characteristics apart the issue is whether they differ cognitively, affectively and in moral out look; and if they do whether one or other set of characteristics is better than the other. For example it has been argued that women see situations and the world itself holistically while men see them atomistically. Again, it has been argued that in ethical thinking women favour virtues of compassion and care while men favour justice and rights.

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    PRUDENCE ALLEN, RSM Man-Woman Complementarity: The Catholic Inspiration EVERY TIME MAN-WOMAN relations moved out of balance in west- ern thought or practice, someone- -a philosopher and/or a theolo- gian responding to a deep source of Catholic inspiration, sought ways to bring the balance back. What do I mean by "out of balance”? When one of two fundamental principles of gender relation equal dignity and significant difference is missing from the respective identities of man and woman, the balance of a complementarity disappears into either a polarity or unisex theory. Table 1 provides a simple summ nmary of these principles and theories with an asterisk indicating the best option of integral gender complementarity. Table 1. Structure of Theories of Gender Identity EQUAL DIGNITY OF MAN AND WOMAN THEORY Gender unity or unisex Traditional gender polarity yes no man per se superior to woman SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENTIATION OF MAN AND WOMAN no yes LOGOS 9:3 SUMMER 2006 88 Table 1. Structure of Theories of Gender Identity (continued) SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENTIATION OF MAN AND WOMAN yes THEORY Reverse gender polarity Fractional gender complementarity EQUAL DIGNITY OF MAN AND WOMAN no LOGOS woman per se superior to man yes *Integral gender yes complementarity Gender neutrality neutral yes complementary as parts yes complementary as wholes neutral This article is divided into two parts. First, a general summary of the drama of basic theories of gender relation up through post-Enlight- enment philosophy will be given. Second, a more detailed analysis of modern and contemporary Catholic inspirations for man-woman integral complementarity will be provided. For those readers who want evidence to support these summarized claims, endnotes re- ferring to primary and secondary sources are provided. Also dates provided for each philosopher will allow the reader to follow the chronology of the dramatic philosophical developments in the his- tory of man-woman relational identities. Historical Overview of Theories of Gender Identity The unisex position, first articulated by Plato (428–355 B.C.), re- jected significant differentiation while defending the basic equality of man and woman. The polarity position, first articulated by Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), rejected fundamental equality while defending the natural superiority of man over woman. Neoplatonic and Aristote- lian positions continued to promote these imbalances respectively until Augustine (354-430), Hildegard of Bingen (1033-1109), and MAN-WOMAN COMPLEMENTARITY Thomas Aquinas (1224–74) attempted, in different ways, to artic- ulate new Christian theological and philosophical foundations for the fundamental equality and significant differentiation of man and woman.¹ While their works did not contain consistent foundations for gender complementarity, they nonetheless moved public dis- course toward a more balanced man-woman complementarity. After the triumphal entry of Aristotelian texts into western Eu- rope in the thirteenth century, the gender polarity position gained new momentum especially in medical, ethical, political, and satiri- cal texts. Eventually, a new kind of Catholic inspiration to defend gender complementarity emerged within Renaissance humanism in the works of Christine de Pizan (1344–1430), Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa (1401-64), Albrecht von Eyb (1420–75), Isotta Nogarola (1418-66), and Laura Cereta (1469-99).2 Here, Italian, French, and German Catholic authors sought to provide multiple founda- tions for the complementarity of women and men in marriage and in broader society. Soon, however, arguments in support of reverse gender polar- ity- a new for of imbalance began to appear in a few authors, such as Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486–1536) and Lucrezia Marinelli (1571–1653).³ They defended the position that there are significant differences between the sexes but that woman is natu- rally superior to man. In the same time period, other movements supported new foun- dations for unisex arguments. The infusion of translations of Plato's dialogues into Latin contained a metaphysical argument based on a sexless soul reincarnated into different kinds of bodies. Marsilio Ficino (1433–99), founder of the Florintine Platonic Academy, also supported some fractional complementarity, and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-94) also had a gender-neutral approach. While gender neutrality basically ignored sex and gender differenc- es, unisex theories made direct arguments that differences between men and women were not significant. Another gender-neutral position was provided by René Des- 89 90 LOGOS cartes' (1590-1650) metaphysical argument that the nonextended, sexless mind was entirely distinct from the extended material body, and that a human being was to be more identified with the mind alone, the “I am a thinking thing,” than with the body or with the union of mind and body. The Cartesian approach positively provid- ed a basis from which equal access to education and suffrage for women and men was directly supported by such authors as François Poullain de la Barre (1647—1723), Mary Astell (1688-1731), and the Marquis de Condorcet (1743-94).ª Cartesian dualism also spawned, especially among Protestants, an Enlightenment form of fractional complementarity, claiming that male and female are significantly different, but each provides only a fraction of one whole person. Woman was thought to provide half of the mind's operations (i.e., intuition, sensation, or particular judgments) and man the other half (i.e., reason or universal judg- ments). These two fractional epistemological operations, if added together, produced only one mind. When the specifics of the engen- dered contributions were identified, these fractional relations often contained stereotypes of a hidden traditional polarity, with the man as superior to the female. Examples of fractional complementar- ity with a hidden polarity can be found in the philosophies of Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712–78), Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), Ar- thur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), Frederick Hegel (1770-1831), and Soren Kierkegaard (1813-55).5 The problem here is that Cartesian dualism separated the mind from the body, so that these Protestant writers had lost a solid metaphysical and ontological foundation based on the integral unity of a human person. Although John Stuart Mill (1806–73) and Harriet Taylor (1807-58) tried to defend complementarity, they also slid into the fractional version because of the lack of an ontological foundation for an adequate (hylomorphic) philosophical anthropology. Any Catholic foundation for an integral gender complementarity was rejected further by atheistic post-Enlightenment philosophers. MAN-WOMAN COMPLEMENTARITY Karl Marx (1818–83) fostered a unisex approach to man-woman relations. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) promoted a traditional po- larity approach. The philosophies of Jean Paul Sartre (1905–80) and Simone de Beauvoir (1908–85) drew from both of these sources to defend an atheistic existentialism that, following sex polarity, de- valued woman in relation to man. Anti-religious secular humanism instead gravitated toward a unisex approach. Finally, postmodern radical feminism vacillated between a reverse gender polarity that exalted woman's nature over man's and a deconstruction of gender differentiation altogether. 6 How would the Catholic inspiration for an integral gender com- plementarity overcome the extreme distortions of post-Enlight- enment theories of man-woman relations? With the imbalance in man-woman relations becoming increasingly extreme in Enlighten- ment and post-Enlightenment philosophies, the Catholic inspira- tion for a new approach to integral gender complementarity came from surprising new sources. Contemporary Catholic Theories of Gender Complementarity Two students of Edmund Husserl, the founder of the phenome- nological movement, laid new foundations for an ontological and experiential complementarity of man and woman: Dietrich von Hildebrand (1889–1977) and St. Edith Stein (1891-1942). Stein's conversion to Catholicism from Judaism in 1922 followed von Hil- debrand's conversion from Evangelical Lutheranism in 1914. Yet, as early as 1914 Stein and von Hildebrand had both been members of the Philosophical Society, composed of students studying under Husserl and Scheler in Göttingen.7 By 1930 Stein wrote about her collaboration with von Hildebrand in giving lectures at a confer- ence in Salzburg, Austria. In 1923 von Hildebrand gave a public lecture in Ulm, Germany, which was expanded and published in 1929 as Die Ehe (On Mar- riage). In this text he argued that "it would be incredibly superficial 91

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    The Complementarity of Women and Men

    Paul Vitz is the Professor Emeritus of Psychology at New York University. He is a Catholic scholar, whose work explores the relationship between psychology and Christian faith. He has recently edited a book, 'The Complementarity of Women and Men: Philosophy, Theology, Psychology & Art' (https://amzn.to/3gkFpoi), with contributions from some leading Catholic voices in the conversation: J Budziszewski, Sr Prudence Allen, Deborah Savage, and Elizabeth Lev. He joins me to discuss the book and the differences and relation between the sexes more generally. If you have enjoyed my videos and podcasts, please tell your friends. If you are interested in supporting my videos and podcasts and my research more generally, please consider supporting my work on Patreon (https://www.patreon.com/zugzwanged), using my PayPal account (https://bit.ly/2RLaUcB), or by buying books for my research on Amazon (https://www.amazon.co.uk/hz/wishlist/ls/36WVSWCK4X33O?ref_=wl_share). The audio of all of my videos is available on my Soundcloud account: https://soundcloud.com/alastairadversaria. You can also listen to the audio of these episodes on iTunes: https://itunes.apple.com/gb/podcast/alastairs-adversaria/id1416351035?mt=2.

  • Jordan Peterson talks MASCULINITY with Russell Brand

    In this interview, I speak with Jordan Peterson about masculinity, and how this is a time that males need purpose and guidance. Do you believe masculinity is not toxic? Do you believe we're in the midst of a masculinity crisis? If you want to watch the full Jordan Peterson podcast then click the link below - I highly suggest you watch the full interview: https://youtu.be/kL61yQgdWeM This is a short excerpt from my podcast "Under the Skin". Click below to listen to my luminary original podcast and hear from guests including Jordan Peterson, Edward Snowden, Jonathan Haidt, Naomi Klein, Kehinde Andrews, Adam Curtis and Vandana Shiva. 🎙️ Subscribe to Luminary at http://apple.co/russell 🎙️ Watch the #UnderTheSkin Youtube Playlist: https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PL5BY9veyhGt7eapYiWXyxGuSxTcysPpJ7 ______________________________________________________________ Elites are taking over! Our only hope is to form our own. To learn more, join my cartel below and get weekly bulletins too incendiary for anything but your private inbox. *not a euphemism https://www.russellbrand.com/join Are you interested in more video like this? I release videos EVERYDAY on Youtube (admit it, you enjoyed watching this one...). Click the link below to subscribe below to my Youtube Channel - don't forget to turn on that notification bell 🔔 http://www.youtube.com/c/RussellBrand?sub_confirmation=1 ______________________________________________________________ SEE ME LIVE! Check out my live events and buy tickets here: 📅 https://www.russellbrand.com/live-dates/ 🎧 My Audible Original, ‘Revelation', is out NOW! US: http://adbl.co/revelation 🇺🇸 UK: http://adbl.co/revelationuk 🇬🇧 AU: http://adbl.co/revelationau 🇦🇺 CA: http://adbl.co/revelationca 🇨🇦 For meditation and breath work, subscribe to my side-channel: http://www.youtube.com/c/AwakeningWithRussell?sub_confirmation=1 ______________________________________________________________ Follow me here: Instagram: http://instagram.com/russellbrand/ Twitter: http://twitter.com/rustyrockets Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/c/RussellBrand?sub_confirmation=1 Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/RussellBrand/ My Website: https://www.russellbrand.com/ Join the Community: https://www.russellbrand.com/join #JordanPeterson #RussellBrand #UnderTheSkin

  • The Compleat Gentleman: The Modern Man’s Guide to Chivalry

    “Here is a welcome reminder that men can be gentlemen without turning into ladies—or louts.”—Michelle Malkin "Miner writes with wit and charm."—Wall Street Journal The Gentleman: An Endangered Species? The catalog of masculine sins grows by the day—mansplaining, manspreading, toxic masculinity—reflecting our confusion over what it means to be a man. Is a man’s only choice between the brutish, rutting #MeToo lout and the gelded imitation woman, endlessly sensitive and fun to go shopping with? No. Brad Miner invites you to discover the oldest and best model of manhood— the gentleman. In this tour de force of popular history and gentlemanly persuasion, Miner lays out the thousand-year history of this forgotten ideal and makes a compelling case for its modern revival. Three masculine archetypes emerge here—the warrior, the lover, and the monk—forming the character of “the compleat gentleman.” He cultivates a martial spirit in defense of the true and the beautiful. He treats the opposite sex with passionate respect. And he values learning in pursuit of the truth. Miner’s gentleman stands out for the combination of discretion, decorum, and nonchalance that the Renaissance called sprezzatura. He belongs to an aristocracy of virtue, not of wealth or birth, following a lofty code of manly conduct, which, far from threatening democracy, is necessary for its survival.

  • The Complementarity of Women and Men: Philosophy, Theology, Psychology, and Art

    The Complementarity of Women and Men provides a Catholic Christian case that men and women are in certain respects quite different but also have a positive, synergistic complementary relationship. Although differences and their mutually supporting relationships are focused on throughout the volume, men and women are assumed to have equal dignity and value. This underlying interpretation comes from the familiar, basic theological position in Genesis that both sexes were made in the image of God. After a cogent philosophical introduction to complementary differences by J. Budziszewski, this position is developed from theological, philosophical, and historical perspectives by Sr. Prudence Allen. Next Deborah Savage, building upon the writings of St. John Paul II, gives a strong theological basis for complementarity. This is followed by Elizabeth Lev’s chapter presenting new and surprising art history evidence from the paintings of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel supporting the complementarity interpretation. A final chapter by Paul Vitz documents and summarizes the scientific evidence supporting sexual difference and complementarity in the disciplines of psychology and neuroscience. As a consequence of both the individual chapters and the integrated understanding they present The Complementarity of Women and Men is a significant contribution to the important, complex, contemporary debate about men, women, sex, and gender.

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    Apostolic Letter Patris Corde of the Holy Father Francis on the 150th Anniversary of the proclamation of Saint Joseph as Patron of the Universal Church, 8 December 2020

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    A Primer on Biblical Masculinity

    Today, we tackle a conversation we’ve never had on this podcast – biblical masculinity. As you men are well aware, Order of Man is a non-religious movement but that doesn’t mean we can’t or shouldn’t look at all available paths to the type of men we have a desire to be. And, I can think of no better guest to have this type of conversation than Bishop Robert Barron, auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles. During our conversation, we talk about David as an example of biblical masculinity, individual sovereignty vs. God’s sovereignty, literal and figurative interpretations of the bible, Jesus Christ as a fighter, and choosing to live the commandments. Read full article https://www.orderofman.com/260 Leave us a rating: https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/order-of-man-protect-provide-preside/id979752171 Join the brotherhood: http://www.theironcouncil.com/ Support Order of Man by picking up some merchandise: http://bit.ly/orderofmanstore Connect with us: https://www.instagram.com/ryanmichler https://www.facebook.com/orderofman/ https://twitter.com/ryanmichler

  • Cultural Engagement: A Crash Course in Contemporary Issues

    How should Christians approach important contemporary issues like war, race, creation care, gender, and politics?Christians in every culture are confronted with social trends and moral questions that can be difficult to navigate. But, the Bible often doesn't speak directly to such issues. Even when it does, it can be confusing to know how best to apply the biblical teaching.In Cultural Engagement: A Crash Course in Contemporary Issues authors Joshua D. Chatraw and Karen Swallow Prior first offer a broadly accessible framework for cultural engagement and then explore specific hot topics in current Western culture including:SexualityGender RolesHuman Life and Reproduction TechnologyImmigration and RaceCreation and Creature CarePoliticsWorkArtsWar, Weapons, and Capital PunishmentFeaturing contributions from over forty top thinkers, proponents of various views on the specific topics present their approaches in their own words, providing readers an opportunity to fairly consider options.Unique in how it addresses both big-picture questions about cultural engagement and pressing current issues, Cultural Engagement provides a thorough and broad introduction useful for students, professors, pastors, college ministers, and any believer wanting to more effectively exercise their faith in the public square.

  • The Catholic Gentleman: Living Authentic Manhood Today

    What it means to be a man or a woman is questioned today like never before. While traditional gender roles have been eroding for decades, now the very categories of male and female are being discarded with reckless abandon. How does one act like a gentleman in such confusing times?The Catholic Gentleman is a solid and practical guide to virtuous manhood. It turns to the timeless wisdom of the Catholic Church to answer the important questions men are currently asking. In short, easy- to-read chapters, the author offers pithy insights on a variety of topics, including• How to know you are an authentic man• Why our bodies matter• The value of tradition• The purpose of courtesy• What real holiness is and how to achieve it• How to deal with failure in the spiritual life