Human cloning occurs naturally as in the case of monozygotic twinning where a single fertilized egg (zygote) splits to produce two genetically identical individuals. The process of artificial human cloning would involve the technique of somatic cell nuclear transplant (SCNT), taking an egg cell, removing its genetic material and implanting into it the nucleus of a body cell from the donor. The resulting entity has only one parent (the donor) and is genetically identical to it. There are two purposes for which this technique might be used. First, therapeutic cloning to produce an embryo that is then destroyed harvesting stem cells from it for use in and second, reproductive cloning to implant it in a host womb and bring it to term. The technique and the purposes to which it is put raise a number of moral questions. Eggs for the process are produced either by induced superovulation and/or bought from young women in poorer countries. The first involves physical risks, the second questions of instrumentalization and exploitation. In some case the donor somatic cell is taken from aborted foetuses, and the termination of the cloned embryo is itself a case of abortion. The use of surrogate mother’s is open to similar objects to the acquisition of eggs, and the use of cloning to acquire better quality babies is or tends towards the commodification of human life. From a utilitarian perspective, however, these and other practices are justified by the principle of the greatest happiness of the greatest number. While there have been several claims to have cloned human beings there is no confirmatory evidence of this yet having taken place.
https://web.stanford.edu › ~mvr2j › sfsu09 › extra › Kass2.pdf
— 72 - Spring 2023 71 - Winter 2023 70 - Fall 2022 69 - Summer 2022 68 - Spring 2022 67 - Winter 2022 66 - Fall 2021 65 - Summer 2021 64 - Spring 2021 63 - Winter 2021 62 - Fall 2020 61 - Winter 2020 60 - Fall 2019 59 - Summer 2019 58 - Spring 2019 57 - Winter 2019 56 - Summer/Fall 2018 55 - Spring 2018 54 - Winter 2018 53 - Summer/Fall 2017 52 - Spring 2017 51 - Winter 2017 50 - Fall 2016 49 - Spring/Summer 2016 48 - Winter 2016 47 - Fall 2015 46 - Summer 2015 45 - Spring 2015 44 - Winter 2015 43 - Summer/Fall 2014 42 - Spring 2014 41 - Winter 2014 40 - Fall 2013 39 - Summer 2013 38 - Winter/Spring 2013 37 - Fall 2012 36 - Summer 2012 35 - Spring 2012 34 - Winter 2012 33 - Fall 2011 32 - Summer 2011 31 - Spring 2011 30 - Winter 2011 29 - Fall 2010 28 - Summer 2010 27 - Spring 2010 26 - Fall 2009 - Winter 2010 25 - Summer 2009 24 - Spring 2009 23 - Winter 2009 22 - Fall 2008 21 - Summer 2008 20 - Spring 2008 19 - Winter 2008 18 - Fall 2007 17 - Summer 2007 16 - Spring 2007 15 - Winter 2007 14 - Fall 2006 13 - Summer 2006 12 - Spring 2006 11 - Winter 2006 10 - Fall 2005 9 - Summer 2005 8 - Spring 2005 7 - Fall 2004 - Winter 2005 6 - Summer 2004 5 - Spring 2004 4 - Winter 2004 3 - Fall 2003 2 - Summer 2003 1 - Spring 2003 No. 1Spring 2003 No. 1 Spring 2003 Editorial The New Politics of Technology Essays Ageless Bodies, Happy Souls Leon R. Kass on biotechnology and the pursuit of perfection Military Technology and American Culture Victor Davis Hanson on our character, our weapons, and our role in the world Liberty, Privacy, and DNA Databases Christine Rosen on the uses and dangers of genetic fingerprints The Paradox of Conservative Bioethics Yuval Levin on taboos, democracy, and the politics of biology Bioethics and the Character of Human Life Gilbert Meilaender on mortality, freedom, suffering, and the generations The Future of Medical Technology Scott Gottlieb on how the marriage of biology and silicon is transforming medicine Artificial Intelligence and Human Nature Charles T. Rubin on the project to make human beings extinct The Rise and Fall of Sociobiology Peter A. Lawler on the age’s three great illusions about human nature Interview Is Cyberspace Secure? An interview with “cybersecurity czar” Howard A. Schmidt State of the Art Fertility Gone Mad Pregnancy After Menopause, IVF Birth defects, & More Bill Gates, the Prince The Muddled Microsoft Case and Stone-Age Antitrust Laws Mapping the Mind Our New Techniques for Scanning the Psyche HapMap—Revolution or Hype? The Controversy Surrounding the Next Gene-Mapping Project Satellites at Risk The Next Homeland Security Challenge May Be in Space Are We Ready for Terror? The Latest Hart-Rudman Report and What It Missed Oh, Behave! Britain’s Nuffield Council Weighs in on Behavioral Genetics Home is Where the Robot is Vacuum Cleaners, Security Guards, and Old-Age Companions Chinese Bioethics? “Voluntary” Eugenics and the Prospects for Reform The Dust Bites Another One From Michael Crichton’s Prey to the Department of Nanotechnology The Animal in Us The Latest Advances in Xenotransplantation ‘Lift Your Eyes to the Heavens’ President Bush’s remarks on the loss of the space shuttle Columbia Notes & Briefs Nuclear Fusion, Censoring Science, Hyper-Healthcare, etc. Looking Ahead Biotechnology by the Numbers Looking Back The Double Helix at Fifty buy issue No. 2Summer 2003 No. 2 Summer 2003 Essays Of Embryos and Empire Eric Cohen on what the embryo debate can teach us about American civilization The Nanotechnology Revolution Adam Keiper on the science and politics of manipulating the very small The New Face of War David Skinner on whether new technologies make war more tolerable and more just War and Techne Gilbert Meilaender on the timeless truths of war Why Conservatives Care About Biotechnology Adam Wolfson on conservatives, biotechnology, and the American project Human Nature is Here to Stay Larry Arnhart on why biotechnology will not change our bodies, brains, and desires Eugenics—Sacred and Profane Christine Rosen on Orthodox matchmakers, IVF clinics, and genetic testing State of the Art Mercy and Drugs in Africa Inside the Bush Administration’s New AIDS Policy My Mother, the Embryo IVF's Latest: She-Males, Fetal Eggs, and Children of the Unborn Year of the Red Planet An International Wave of Interplanetary Exploration Clueless Moral Silliness from Some Spokesmen of Science Navel-Gazing Bioethics and the Unbearable Whiteness of Being Porn, Privacy, and Kids Congressional Attempts to Make the Internet Child-Friendly Carried Away with Convergence The Merging of Nanotech, Biotech, Infotech, and Brain Sciences Boys Will Be Boys The Science of the Y Chromosome Crackdown! Stepping Up the Fight Against Music Piracy Stopping Spam As the Spam Problem Worsens, Congress Seeks a Remedy Technology: The Great Enabler? How Jayson Blair Conned the New York Times ‘Something History Will Not Forgive’ Excerpts from Tony Blair’s Speech to Congress, July 18, 2003 Notes & Briefs Cloned Mules, Forgetful Mice, Camera Phones, etc. Looking Ahead Learning from Columbia Looking Back Reflections on the Tiniest Things buy issue No. 3Fall 2003 No. 3 Fall 2003 Essays A New Vision for NASA Adam Keiper on the trouble with NASA and the moral case for space exploration Bioethics in Wartime Eric Cohen on biology and the good life—in peace and in war A Conversation with Nature Steve Talbott on understanding our relationship with the natural world From Biology to Biography William Hurlbut on evolution and the ascent of the human person Why Not Artificial Wombs? Christine Rosen on the meaning of being born, not incubated Does Digital Politics Still Matter? Robert Atkinson and Shane Ham on the battles over information technology The Politics of the WHO Steven Menashi on the follies of the World Health Organization State of the Art ‘Tis the Season? Women off the Cycle, Men on the Pill Caught in the Act Tracking Cheating Hearts in the Cyber-Age Bank on It Britain Constructs a Universal Genetic Database Out of Their Right Mind Conservatism is Crazy, but Psychiatry is Here to Help Edward Teller, RIP The Controversial Life of the Father of the H-Bomb Neil Postman, RIP Culture, Technology, and the Modern Soul The Science Journal Crisis Disappearing Articles, Skyrocketing Costs, and Open Access Paper and Pixel The Web Takes Note of Books, Reference Books Discover the Web Was Blind, But Now I See Stem Cells, Genetics, and Bionics in the Quest for Sight The Future of Satellites New Problems and New Players in the Satellite Game ‘We’re the Dreamers’ Senators Hear Opposing Views on Piracy from Two Rappers Notes & Briefs Spammer Justice, Cloned Food, Solar Flares, etc. Looking Ahead China Takes Off Looking Back The Wright Stuff buy issue No. 4Winter 2004 No. 4 Winter 2004 Biotechnology and the Good Life Science and Self-Government Wilfred M. McClay on science and self-government A More Child-Like Science Steve Talbott on “better children” Man or Machine? Charles T. Rubin on “superior performance” Methuselah and Us Diana Schaub on “ageless bodies” Restless Souls Peter A. Lawler on “happy souls” Essays Romance in the Information Age Christine Rosen on how technology is changing courtship Imagining the Future Yuval Levin on innovations, generations, and the biotechnology debates The Kyoto Protocol: A Post-Mortem S. Fred Singer on the politics of global climate change The Scientist and the Poet Paul A. Cantor on the surprising wrinkles in an age-old rivalry The Spirit of Discovery The Right Plan Adam Keiper on the plan and its critics The Virtual Astronaut Robert Park on the virtual astronaut The Human Explorer Robert Zubrin on the human explorer State of the Art The Age of Cloning Breakthrough in South Korea, Stalemate in the Senate Do Embryos Vote? Stem Cell Politics in an Election Year The Nanotech Schism High-Tech Pants or Molecular Revolution? Online Democracy Why the Era of E-Voting Will Have to Wait Life is Just a Game The Rise of Video Games in American Culture The Ideological Environmentalist Challenging the Orthodoxy of “Green” Science Click Twice and Call Me in the Morning The Growing Underground Market in Prescription Drugs History Repeating? The Peculiar Comeback of Eugenics Gatekeepers of Science Peer Review Controversies at Home and Abroad Power-Hungry China The International Consequences of China’s Quest for Energy ‘The Seams that Hold Us Back’ Bill Gates on Hardware, Software, and the Next Step in Computing Notes & Briefs Face Transplants, Text-Message Weddings, Aerogel, etc. Looking Ahead Reviewing American Intelligence Looking Back John Deere and America’s Character buy issue No. 5Spring 2004 No. 5 Spring 2004 Essays Energy Dreams and Energy Realities Stephanie Cohen on liberals, conservatives, and the energy debate The Democratization of Beauty Christine Rosen on cosmetic surgery and American culture The Dilemmas of German Bioethics Eric Brown on the taboos of the Nazi past and the future of human dignity The Legacy of Nazi Medicine Naomi Schaefer on a powerful new exhibit at the U.S. Holocaust Museum Technology and the Constitution O. Carter Snead on how new technologies affect judicial interpretation Nuclear 1914: The Next Big Worry Henry Sokolski on the problem of nuclear proliferation in the age of terrorism Getting Serious About IVF Adam Wolfson on the new report from the President’s Council on Bioethics Memory and the Movies James Bowman on remembering and forgetting through the eyes of Hollywood State of the Art Dot-Com Terrorism How Radical Islam Uses the Internet to Fight the West Campaigning for Stem Cells Research Advocates Launch a New Offensive for Funding Daniel J. Boorstin, RIP Historian, Critic, and American Man of Books Gaga Over Google More than a Search Engine, Less than a Mind Life from Scratch Promise, Peril, and Pathogens: Breakthroughs in Synthetic Biology Science Goes Hollywood Selective Outrage over the Latest Movie Inaccuracies Red Planet, Wet Planet Developments in the Search for Life on Mars Miles Still to Go DARPA and the Great Robot Race The Science of Human Potential Public Dialogue about Behavioral Genetics One of Us The Anatomy of Acceptance ‘The Course We Must Maintain’ Vice President Cheney on Proliferation and Cooperation Notes & Briefs Stamping Out Spam, Euthanasia News, Books Online, etc. Looking Ahead The Return of the Space Debate Looking Back 25 Years in the Sausage Factory buy issue No. 6Summer 2004 No. 6 Summer 2004 Essays The Human Face of Alzheimer’s Colleen Carroll Campbell on the medical, ethical, and personal aspects of dementia Stem Cells and the Reagan Legacy Gilbert Meilaender on hubris and limits in the embryo research debate Our Cell Phones, Ourselves Christine Rosen on the consequences of ignoring the world around us The Path Not Taken Rand Simberg on the myths of the old space age and what comes next Our Asterisked Heroes Douglas Kern on human excellence in the age of performance-enhancing drugs Film and TV in Anxious Times Thomas S. Hibbs on fantasy film, reality TV, and American life after 9/11 Internet Pornography: An Exchange The End of Obscenity Jeffrey Rosen The Pornography Culture David B. Hart State of the Art The Assassin’s Mace China’s Growing Military Might The Stem Cell Race John Kerry and the Democrats Search for an Issue America at 10 M.P.H. The Slow But Steady Rise of Segway The Big Change The End of Menopause and Its Meaning It’s Getting Easier Being Green Permaculture Goes Mainstream Francis Crick, RIP The Man, the Mind, and the Molecule Doping for Seconds The Shadow of Drugs on American Athletics ‘Higher Standards’ Eliot Spitzer on the Pharmaceutical Industry Notes & Briefs Nano News, Robot Nurses, Racing Sperm, etc. Looking Ahead The Virtual Stump Looking Back King James for Surgeon General buy issue No. 7Fall 2004 - Winter 2005 No. 7 Fall 2004 - Winter 2005 Editorials Science in the Public Square The Bioethics Agenda and the Bush Second Term Essays Science and Congress Adam Keiper on science advice and the legacy of the Office of Technology Assessment The Age of Egocasting Christine Rosen on TiVo, iPod, and technologies of fetish Human Growth Hormone and the Measure of Man Dov Fox on height enhancement and the new tyranny of the normal The Embryo Question Acorns and Embryos Robert P. George and Patrick Lee on moral standing and bad metaphors The Tragedy of Equality Eric Cohen on the uses of reason, the absurdity of disease, and the quest for justice Human Frailty and Human Dignity Leon R. Kass responds to Eric Cohen’s essay The Crisis of Everyday Life Yuval Levin responds to Eric Cohen’s essay In What Sense Equal? Amy Laura Hall responds to Eric Cohen’s essay State of the Art I’ve Got You Under My Skin Tracking Technology Gets Personal Black Box Ballyhoo Voting Technology in the 2004 Election Gray Matter in the Courtroom Neuroscience as Legal Evidence Debunking the Digital Classroom Rethinking the Virtues of “Tech Literacy” The Cloning Logjam Treaty Talks Break Down at the United Nations The Encyclopedia in Cyberspace Wikipedia Makes Every Man an Editor ‘A Second Kind of Frontier’ The X Prize Triumph and the Future of Space Travel Looking Ahead Science and Tech Policy: What Next? Looking Back Politicizing Science, Sixties-Style buy issue No. 8Spring 2005 No. 8 Spring 2005 Essays The Caregiving Society Peter Augustine Lawler on caring for the old in an age of individualism Getting Space Exploration Right Robert Zubrin on making the Moon-Mars initiative work Science Education and Liberal Education Matthew B. Crawford on the trouble with today’s textbooks Logic, DNA, and Poetry Steve Talbott on how bad metaphors make for bad science Daedalus and Icarus Revisited Charles T. Rubin on science, the future, and the Haldane-Russell debate Bioethics at the Movies James Bowman on abortion, euthanasia, and Hollywood State of the Art The Embryo Wars The U.N., Mitt Romney, and California Corruption DNA Dragnets The Uses and Abuses of Genetic Information Blogs Gone Bad The Darker Side of the Blogging Boom Crimson Recriminations Larry Summers vs. The Harvard Feminists ‘A Profound Loss as a Culture’ Debating Copyright in the Digital Age Notes & Briefs Space Tourism, Tsunami Hucksters, Artificial Friends, etc. Looking Ahead Assessing the Nanotech Revolution Looking Back Is Nuclear Energy Coming Back? buy issue No. 9Summer 2005 No. 9 Summer 2005 Essays Playgrounds of the Self Christine Rosen on video games and modern identity The Real Meaning of Genetics Eric Cohen on the false fears and genuine dilemmas of modern genetics The Computerized Academy Matthew B. Crawford on information technology and the life of the mind Technology and the Spirit of Ownership Paul J. Cella III on private property as a cure for the ills of the technology age Science, Technology, and The Public Interest Excerpts from forty years of “a middle-aged magazine for middle-aged readers” John Paul II and the Ethics of the Body The Anti-Theology of the Body David B. Hart Reading the Body Robert W. Jenson State of the Art How We Measure Up Is American Math and Science Education in Decline? Shooting Not to Kill America’s Development and Use of Non-Lethal Weapons The New NASA Mike Griffin Takes the Helm and Transforms the Agency To Boldly Go The end of Star Trek and Star Wars Checking Terrorists at the Door Small Hopes for The Real ID Act ‘An Unknowable Atom of Human Flesh’ Henry Hyde and Joe Barton on the Ethics of Stem Cell Research Notes & Briefs Russia’s Blackout, Los Alamos Woes, Paris Hilton, etc. Looking Ahead Picking Judges Online Looking Back Hiroshima and Nagasaki at Sixty buy issue No. 10Fall 2005 No. 10 Fall 2005 Essays Conservatives, Liberals, and Medical Progress Daniel Callahan on politics, death, and the future of modern medicine The Moral Education of Doctors Philip Overby on shaping the souls of aspiring physicians The Image Culture Christine Rosen on Photoshop, PowerPoint, and our perception of reality Buggy Software and Missile Defense Mark Halpern on writing code and protecting the country Love in the Age of Neuroscience Mickey Craig and Jon Fennell on Tom Wolfe’s I Am Charlotte Simmons Reconsideration Francis Bacon’s God Stephen A. McKnight reconsiders the religious foundations of the “New Atlantis” Excerpt The Aging Self A selection from Taking Care, a report by the President’s Council on Bioethics State of the Art The Lessons of Katrina Natural Horrors and Modern Technology Relaunching NASA Back to the Moon by 2018—Or Sooner Bush-League Science Are Republicans Conducting a “War on Science”? Cicely Saunders, RIP Remembering the Founder of the Hospice Movement Hollywood’s Fertile Imagination Baby-Making Goes Prime Time Chief Justice at the Bedside John Roberts and the End of Life Looking Ahead A New Approach on Climate Change? Looking Back Einstein’s Annus Mirabilis buy issue No. 11Winter 2006 No. 11 Winter 2006 Essays The Age of Neuroelectronics Adam Keiper on neural implants, brain-machine interfaces, and cyborg fantasies The Trouble with the Turing Test Mark Halpern on the fallacy of thinking computers The Rhetoric of Extinction Charles T. Rubin reviews four recent books on transhumanism Are We Worthy of Our Kitchens? Christine Rosen on expensive appliances and modern families Who Owns the Genome? Misha Angrist and Robert M. Cook-Deegan on intellectual property and genomics Excerpt The Rise of Guerrilla Media Glenn Reynolds on blogs, Big Media, and the future of journalism State of the Art Human Cloning and Scientific Corruption The South Korea Scandal and the Future of the Stem Cell Debate The U.N.’s Net Gambit Internationalizing Internet Governance The $100 Laptop A Flawed Plan to “Save the World” Morals and the Mind Michael Gazzaniga’s Ethical Brain ‘No Nation Can Afford to Ignore This Threat’ America Prepares for Avian Flu Notes & Briefs Science Education, Wikipedia’s Accuracy, Mozart’s Skull, etc. Looking Ahead TV is Dead, Long Live TV Looking Back Discovering Pluto buy issue No. 12Spring 2006 No. 12 Spring 2006 Correspondence Visions of the Future; The Turing Test Essays Biotechnology and the Spirit of Capitalism Eric Cohen on the new commerce of the body The Promise and Perils of Synthetic Biology Jonathan B. Tucker and Raymond A. Zilinskas on regulating designer microbes The Mislabeled Child Brock L. Eide and Fernette F. Eide on the failure of kindergarten neurochemistry The Many Casualties of Cloning Richard M. Doerflinger on the lessons of the South Korean fraud Reviews and Reconsiderations The God Meme Charles T. Rubin on Daniel Dennett’s unconvincing theory Jules Verne: Father of Science Fiction? John Derbyshire on Verne’s lesser-known works Polio Stories Philip J. Overby on the meaning of a forgotten epidemic The Age of Female Computers David Skinner on the burdens of pre-machine mathematics A Clone’s Lament James Bowman on life as a useful pre-cadaver State of the Art Censoring Scientists? Lessons of the James Hansen Affair Stem Cell Spin The Bush Policy and Its Unreasonable Critics Stuck with the Old, In with the New NASA’s Budgetary Balancing Act Addicted to Bad Data Getting the Facts Straight on Ethanol Apocalypse Averted The BlackBerry Settlement and Patent Reform ‘Predators Are Becoming More Sophisticated’ Pornographers and Pedophiles Online Looking Ahead Drowning Polar Bears Looking Back The Jungle at 100 buy issue No. 13Summer 2006 No. 13 Summer 2006 Correspondence Biocapitalism Essays Shop Class as Soulcraft Matthew B. Crawford makes a case for the manual trades Gifts of the Body Gilbert Meilaender on organs, markets, and the ethics of transplantation The Self-Portrait of a Scientist Christine Rosen on wonder, mastery, and fame in scientific memoir A Third Way on Network Neutrality Robert D. Atkinson and Philip J. Weiser on the battle over broadband The First Fourteen Days of Human Life Patrick Lee and Robert P. George on the biology of the early embryo The Myth of Thomas Szasz Jeffrey Oliver on the legacy of psychiatry’s forgotten critic Reviews and Reconsiderations The Methanol Alternative Robert Zubrin on how to alleviate our energy problems Medicine Without Limits Daniel P. Sulmasy on therapy, enhancement, and sophistry Babies for Sale Cheryl Miller on buying and selling our offspring On the Shelf Quick Takes on The Father of Surgery, Box Boats, Cloning and the Law, etc. State of the Art China’s Phony Science Exposing Corruption, Plagiarism, and Fraud Rethinking Peer Review How the Internet is Changing Science Journals Cyber-Insecurity Computer Theft Puts Veterans’ Data at Risk Sexist Science? A “She Said, He Said” About Discrimination in the Lab ‘Stumbling into a Powerful Technology’ Baroness Greenfield on New Media and Young Minds Notes & Briefs Sex Selection, Chernobyl, Bottled Water, etc. Looking Ahead Stop the Pop Looking Back The Stem Cell President buy issue No. 14Fall 2006 No. 14 Fall 2006 Correspondence The Beginning of Life; An Unbalanced Diagnosis; The Enhancement Wars; Three Cheers for Craftsmanship Essays The Paradox of Military Technology Max Boot on American power and American vulnerability The Moral Challenge of Modern Science Yuval Levin on politics, ethics, and the scientific worldview Commerce of the Body The Case for Kidney Markets Benjamin Hippen on how to solve the kidney shortage Is the Body Property? Peter Augustine Lawler on rights, dignity, and organ sales Reviews and Reconsiderations Beyond the Right to Life Wilfred M. McClay on the “Party of Death” The Agony of Atomic Genius Algis Valiunas on the tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer Cloning’s Apologist Caitrin Nicol on Ian Wilmut’s defense of research cloning C. S. Lewis Goes to the Laboratory Thomas W. Merrill on the science and faith of Francis Collins State of the Art Too Speculative? Henry Sokolski The Dotcomrade Brian Boyd The Touchy-Feely Laboratory Christine Rosen Space Deals Rand Simberg Eco-Censorship Iain Murray Techno-Horror in Hollywood Sonny Bunch ‘Oblivious’ Rush Holt on Science, Technology, and Congress Notes & Briefs Healthier People, Sicker Oceans, Electronic Books, etc. Looking Ahead 400 Million Americans Looking Back The Last Breath of Thomas Edison buy issue No. 15Winter 2007 No. 15 Winter 2007 Correspondence Principle, Prudence, and the “Party of Death” Essays The Hydrogen Hoax Robert Zubrin on energy charlatans and the politicians who love them In Whose Image Shall We Die? Eric Cohen on living well and dying well The Language of Nature Steve Talbott on how science drains meaning from experience The Scientific Mind of Ben Franklin Jerry Weinberger on America’s first Baconian Reviews and Reconsiderations The Red Plague Cheryl Miller on how China bungled SARS Psychiatry’s Healer Philip J. Overby on the medical humanism of Paul McHugh Our Childless Dystopia James Bowman on P. D. James’s The Children of Men, as novel and film Immortality Lite Ross Douthat on the sublime and the foolish in Darren Aronofsky’s The Fountain Theory Wars, Again Matthew B. Crawford on reason and relativism in the academy State of the Art Sucker-Me Elmo Christine Rosen The Electoral Politics of Stem Cells Yuval Levin Cloning Down Under Michael Casey Dead Body Porn Thomas S. Hibbs Back to the Moon, To Stay? Jeff Foust Bioethics and The Public Interest A Journal’s Lasting Legacy Looking Ahead Windows Whimpers Looking Back Sterile Thinking buy issue No. 16Spring 2007 No. 16 Spring 2007 Correspondence Rethinking the Hydrogen Economy Essays China’s Space Ambitions—and Ours Jeff Kueter on the Chinese threat to American space assets and what to do about it The Right to Life and Human Dignity Leon R. Kass on Thomas Hobbes as a teacher of dignity Brave New World at 75 Caitrin Nicol on reading Aldous Huxley’s novel as its first readers did Nanoethics as a Discipline? Adam Keiper on the proliferation of professional nanotechnology criticism Reviews and Reconsiderations What’s Ailing Health Care? James C. Capretta on markets, medicine, and the limits of government The Half-Bound World John Derbyshire reviews Neal Stephenson’s Baroque Cycle The Greening of Capitalism Nick Schulz on environmentalism as corporate exhibitionism The Problem with Plagiarism Jeremy Lott on the timeless drama of the copycat Political Pseudoscience Matthew B. Crawford on why political science is not physics State of the Art Reforming NIH Yuval Levin Energy Incrementalism Stephanie Cohen Seeing and Believing Peter Suderman What Lies Within Christine Rosen Digilante Justice Ruth Martin ‘A Critical Part of the Solution’ Al Gore and the Nuclear Debate Notes & Briefs Sonofusion, Burnt Sponges, Smelling Technosexual, etc. Looking Ahead The HPV Vaccine Debate Looking Back The Human Checkmate buy issue No. 17Summer 2007 No. 17 Summer 2007 Correspondence China’s Aims in Space; Debating Nanoethics Essays Virtual Friendship and the New Narcissism Christine Rosen on MySpace, Facebook, and the costs of social networking Human Dignity and Public Bioethics Gilbert Meilaender on dignity as a useful concept Melancholy’s Whole Physician Algis Valiunas reads Robert Burton’s The Anatomy of Melancholy Heroism, Modernism, and the Utopian Impulse James Bowman on cowboys, communists, and dreams of perfection Reviews and Reconsiderations Drug Addiction and the Open Society Lee Harris on freedom and self-mastery Parenthood at Any Price Cheryl Miller reviews Liza Mundy’s Everything Conceivable Intimations of the Soul Paul J. Cella III on idolatry in the Age of Machines Devaluing Science Jonathan H. Adler on scientists and politics State of the Art ‘Less Morally Problematic Alternatives’ Yuval Levin Soldiers for Rent Habib Moody The Man in the Moon Stephen Bertman Faces Disappearing Richard W. Sams II ‘For Better or Worse’ Tony Blair on Politics and the Media Notes & Briefs Live Earth, Mr. Wizard, Solving Checkers, etc. Looking Ahead The Summer of Love Looking Back The Steamboat that Stayed buy issue No. 18Fall 2007 No. 18 Fall 2007 Essays Achieving Energy Victory Robert Zubrin on how to win the war on terror by breaking free of oil Ghosts in the Evolutionary Machinery Steve Talbott on digital organisms and disembodied science A Half-Century in Space The Conquest of Space and the Stature of Man Hannah Arendt on scientists, common sense, and man’s limitations Nature, Man, and Common Sense Patrick J. Deneen Science and Totalitarianism Rita Koganzon Thumos in Space Charles T. Rubin Chariots in the Sky Stephen Bertman Our Proud Human Future Peter Augustine Lawler Reviews and Reconsiderations Launching the Space Age James E. Oberg on the dramatic story of Sputnik The New Pioneers Rand Simberg on the burgeoning private space industry The Evangelical Ecologist S.M. Hutchens on E. O. Wilson’s Earth-piety The Painless Peace of Twilight Sleep Cheryl Miller on an overlooked Edith Wharton gem State of the Art Shot in the Dark Caitrin Nicol Science Warrior Yuval Levin Unclassifiable Christine Rosen Card’s Game Peter Suderman ‘Americans Will Not Like It’ Michael Griffin on the Global Space Economy Notes & Briefs Blackwater Fallout, Caves on Mars, Missing Mass, etc. Looking Ahead First Ripples of the Silver Tsunami Looking Back The Heartbeat Heard Round the World buy issue No. 19Winter 2008 No. 19 Winter 2008 Editorial John McCain and the Stem Cell Debate Correspondence The Logic of Science; Biodiversity and the Bible Essays Science and the Left Yuval Levin on the past and future of the “party of science” Neuroimaging and Capital Punishment O. Carter Snead on brain scans and the conflicted aspirations of neuroscience The Limits of Neuro-Talk Matthew B. Crawford on the dangers of a mindless brain science Blogging Infertility Cheryl Miller on the lively and fractious community of “infertiles” Reviews and Reconsiderations Masters and Possessors of Nature Thomas W. Merrill reads Descartes’ Discourse on Method Shop Till You Drop? Jeremy Lott on suburbs, bomb shelters, and bottled water Sick and Famous Christy Hall Robinson on celebrity patients as advocates State of the Art The Clipboard of the Future James C. Capretta Till Malfunction Do Us Part Caitrin Nicol The Moral Life of Cubicles David Franz ‘The Steroids Era’ George Mitchell on Drugs in Baseball Notes & Briefs Green Collars, Plastic Bags, MySpace Gangsters, etc. Looking Ahead Adapting to Climate Change Looking Back Loose Nukes at Home buy issue No. 20Spring 2008 No. 20 Spring 2008 Essays In Defense of Biofuels Robert Zubrin on ethanol and its critics Health Care 2008: A Political Primer James C. Capretta on how and why McCain's health care plan might work Public Opinion and the Embryo Debates Yuval Levin analyzes a revealing new poll on bioethics Technology and Authenticity Bruno Macaes on enhancement, action, and truth Biotech Enhancement and Natural Law Ryan T. Anderson and Christopher Tollefsen on distinctions in an age of novelty The Myth of Multitasking Christine Rosen on doing too much at once The Technology of Memory James Poulos on forgetting how to remember Montesquieu and the Motives for Science The Motives That Ought to Encourage Us to the Sciences A discourse by Montesquieu translated for the first time into English by Diana Schaub Montesquieu’s Popular Science Diana Schaub on the study of science and the life of the mind Reviews and Reconsiderations Einstein’s Quest for Truth Algis Valiunas on the mind of the man behind relativity At Home with Down Syndrome Caitrin Nicol reads memoirs of gratitude Looking Ahead An Olympic Fiasco Looking Back A Debate Still Patently Alive buy issue No. 21Summer 2008 No. 21 Summer 2008 Essays Nuclear Policy and the Presidential Election Henry Sokolski on nuclear matters and why they matter Conservatives, Climate Change, and the Carbon Tax Jim Manzi on the cost of thinking impractically about potential risk Donated Generation Cheryl Miller on releasing the identities of egg and sperm donors Rethinking Public Opinion Thomas Fitzgerald on the problems of polling Technology, Culture, and Virtue Patrick J. Deneen on Wendell Berry’s unnatured man Reviews and Reconsiderations Is Stupid Making Us Google? James Bowman on the “Dumbest Generation” We Are the Change We’ve Been Waiting For Sebastian Waisman on the “Millennial Generation” The World Made New Rita Koganzon on Second Life and real life The Brat Pack of Quantum Mechanics John Derbsyhire on a pivotal year for modern physics The Prudence of Neuroscience Ivan Kenneally reviews The Heart of Judgment State of the Art An Animal to Save the World Jonathan H. Adler Taking the Earth’s Temperature Jordan R. Raney Pipeline Diplomacy Adam Blinick ‘Leadership from the Bottom’ Wendell Berry on Rural Revival Notes & Briefs Chocolate DNA, Prozac for Puppies, ELIZA, etc. Looking Ahead Counting Correctly Looking Back The First Stitch buy issue No. 22Fall 2008 No. 22 Fall 2008 Essays Petrodollar Science Waleed Al-Shobakky on research and education in the Arab world People of the Screen Christine Rosen tells a tale of two literacies Ten Years of “Death with Dignity” Courtney S. Campbell on Oregon’s experience with physician-assisted suicide Fixing American Health Care Joseph V. Kennedy on cost, quality, and competition Health Care with a Conscience James C. Capretta on protecting Catholic hospitals Reviews and Reconsiderations Beyond Mankind Charles T. Rubin on John Harris’s “sanshumanist” project The Confused Congresswoman Yuval Levin on Diana DeGette’s assault on reason Green Bridge to Nowhere Jonathan H. Adler on Gus Speth’s unsustainable environmentalism State of the Art Capturing Carbon Jordan R. Raney Staying Afloat Peter Suderman ‘Categories of Warfare Are Blurring’ Robert Gates on the Tactics and Tools of Tomorrow’s Battles Notes & Briefs Eco-Vandalism, Noise Laws, the Billion-Dollar Click, etc. Looking Ahead The Future of Cell Biology Looking Back The Model T and American Life buy issue No. 23Winter 2009 No. 23 Winter 2009 Correspondence Debating “Death with Dignity”; Obsolete Librarians Editorial Science and the Obama Administration Essays The Ethics of Counterinsurgency Keith Pavlischek on irregular warfare and international law Military Robots and the Laws of War P. W. Singer on how unmanned systems are transforming armed conflict Why Minds Are Not Like Computers Ari N. Schulman on fundamental confusion about artificial intelligence Reality and the Postmodern Wink James Bowman champions curmudgeonliness as an antidote to cynicism Nations, Liberalism, and Science Peter Augustine Lawler on civil theology and civil biology Socialism and Cancer David Gratzer on how government ruins medicine Reviews and Reconsiderations The Great Breath of Hell Algis Valiunas on the modern way of madness Making Men Modern Wayne Ambler on reform and recalcitrance in Twain’s Connecticut Yankee Looking Ahead Dilly-Dallying on Iran Looking Back The Inventor President buy issue No. 24Spring 2009 No. 24 Spring 2009 Essays AIDS Relief and Moral Myopia Travis Kavulla on African culture and the public health community Embryos in Limbo Jacqueline Pfeffer Merrill on IVF and indecision about nascent life What and When Is Death? Alan Rubenstein on knowing human living to define human dying Technocracy and Populism Ivan Kenneally on President Obama and putting politics behind us Reviews and Reconsiderations Is Water a Human Right? Kendra Okonski on market solutions to the world’s “water crisis” In Search of Chinese Science John Derbyshire on Joseph Needham, sinologist and scientist The Virtual Public Square Alan Jacobs reviews Richard John Neuhaus’s final book The True Face of Digital Democracy Sebastian Waisman on the Internet and civic engagement State of the Art The Road to Rationing Paul Howard and David Gratzer Keeping Books Safe Elizabeth Mullaney Nicol The Rise of Cyber-Schools Liam Julian Disability Politics Ari Ne’eman At the Gates of a Magical Garden G. Anthony Gorry Down in Flames James E. Oberg Looking Ahead The Stakes in the Health Care Fight Looking Back Fifty Years of “Two Cultures” buy issue No. 25Summer 2009 No. 25 Summer 2009 Essays A Space Program for the Rest of Us Rand Simberg on the wrong lessons of Apollo and the right way to reach space The Lost Prestige of Nuclear Physics N. J. Slabbert on the American retreat from nuclear technology Science and Medicine in Fiction The Ambiguous Utopia of Iain M. Banks Alan Jacobs on the “Culture” novels and the price of bliss Plato in Space Charles T. Rubin on science, politics, and faith in Neal Stephenson’s Anathem Unchosen Lives Caitrin Nicol on Jodi Picoult’s tales at the threshold Creating Frankenstein Jeremy Kessler on Victor’s monster and the Shelleys’ story Reviews and Reconsiderations The Fusion Illusion Max Schulz on false starts, fraud, and the real promise of nuclear fusion Too Hot to Handle Jordan R. Raney throws cold water on climate extremists Medicine and Moral Authority Daniel P. Sulmasy reviews Jonathan Imber’s Trusting Doctors State of the Art Fighting Fake Drugs Roger Bate Test Ban Treaty, Take Two Christopher A. Ford Romancing the Atom Robert R. Johnson China’s Organ Market S. Elizabeth Forsythe Nutrition and Tradition John Schwenkler Looking Ahead Get Moving on Yucca Looking Back Our Petroleum Prosperity buy issue No. 26Fall 2009 - Winter 2010 No. 26 Fall 2009 - Winter 2010 Essays The Future of Chemical Weapons Jonathan B. Tucker on a neglected threat and what to do about it The Financial Crisis and the Scientific Mindset Paul J. Cella III on shadow banking and the returns of rationalism On Bioethics in Public Gilbert Meilaender reflects on the method and legacy of the President’s Council on Bioethics Science, the Humanities, and the University Science and the Decline of the Liberal Arts Patrick J. Deneen The Technocratic American University Ivan Kenneally Human Dignity and Higher Education Peter Augustine Lawler The Soul of the Scientist of Man Shilo Brooks The Ivy League Lament Rita Koganzon Reviews and Reconsiderations Darwin’s World of Pain and Wonder Algis Valiunas on the great scientist’s spiritual torment Cheap Thrills Noemie Emery defends the American consumer The Formation of Character David Skinner on how we write and who we are Why We Walk Jennifer Graf Groneberg on the origins of man and the end of walking Hawthorne Series Nathaniel Hawthorne and the Spirit of Science The Editors kick off a series on scientific progress and the American literary genius Wasting the Water of Life Kevin Laskowski on “Dr. Heidegger’s Experiment” and the allure of immortality Dr. Heidegger’s Experiment Online only: A new critical edition of Hawthorne’s story Looking Ahead Bioethics: Left, Right, and Wrong Looking Back The Bhopal Injustice buy issue No. 27Spring 2010 No. 27 Spring 2010 Essays Why Not Nuclear Disarmament? Christopher A. Ford on the questions that disarmament advocates must answer Proportionality in Warfare Keith Pavlischek on the abuse of an important just war principle The Tortured Logic of Obama’s Drone War Hillel Ofek on the strategic, legal, and moral implications of targeted killing The Most Useful Man Who Ever Lived William Rosen on making heroes of inventors Reviews and Reconsiderations Scientists Fallen Among Poets Algis Valiunas on what the Romantics learned from scientists, and vice versa One Man’s Quantum Culture Jeremy Axelrod reviews a memoir of strange science and swanky society Avatar and the Flight from Reality James Bowman on the sci-fi blockbuster and the mimetic tradition in art From Cursive to Cursor Alan Jacobs on whether it matters how we write Bad Advice for Scientists Ari N. Schulman reviews Unscientific America Hawthorne Series Artful by Nature Charles T. Rubin reads “The New Adam and Eve” The New Adam and Eve Online only: A new critical edition of Hawthorne’s story State of the Art A Regrettable Reform David Gratzer Going Nowhere Robert Zubrin Claude Lévi-Strauss, RIP Travis Kavulla Missing the Big Picture Jeff Robbins The Case for Boredom Adam J. Cox Avatars in the Workplace G. Anthony Gorry ‘The Unique Worth of an Individual Human Life’ On conversing with and learning from Paul Ramsey Looking Ahead The Future of Health Care Looking Back Part of Our Complete Breakfast buy issue No. 28Summer 2010 No. 28 Summer 2010 Essays Getting Over the Code Delusion Steve Talbott on epigenetics and the demise of DNA as destiny How Can I Possibly Be Free? Raymond Tallis on the neuroscientific case against free will, and why it’s wrong Hiding Behind the Screen Roger Scruton on the risks of friendship and the costs of shirking them Environmentalism as Religion Joel Garreau on energy sinners and carbon Calvinism Churchill on Science and Civilization Justin D. Lyons on politics and the humanities, war and peace, in the age of science Reviews and Reconsiderations The Science of Self-Help Algis Valiunas on goofy advice, dubious wisdom, and neuro-gurus Disenchanting Determinism Caitrin Nicol reviews novels by Richard Powers and Rebecca Newberger Goldstein Hawthorne Series From Hearth-Fires to Hell-Fires Diana Schaub reads three tales on the flames of progress Ethan Brand Online only: A new critical edition of Hawthorne’s story Earth’s Holocaust Online only: A new critical edition of Hawthorne’s story Fire Worship Online only: A new critical edition of Hawthorne’s story Looking Ahead Shoot First, Get Copyright Later Looking Back Lighter-than-Air Follies buy issue No. 29Fall 2010 No. 29 Fall 2010 Essays What Neuroscience Cannot Tell Us About Ourselves Raymond Tallis debunks the tropes of “neuromythology”
— Home About Us Meetings Reports Transcripts Background Materials Former Bioethics Commissions Human Cloning and Human Dignity: An Ethical Inquiry The President's Council on Bioethics Washington, D.C., July 2002 Full Document (PDF: 3.43 MB) Full Document (HTML: 910 KB) Table of Contents: Letter of Transmittal to the President Members of the President's Council on Bioethics Council Staff and Consultants Preface Executive Summary Chapter One: The Meaning of Human Cloning: An Overview Chapter Two: Historical Aspects of Cloning Chapter Three: On Terminology Chapter Four: Scientific Background Chapter Five: The Ethics of Cloning-to-Produce-Children Chapter Six: The Ethics of Cloning-for-Biomedical-Research Chapter Seven: Public Policy Options Chapter Eight: Policy Recommendations Bibliography Glossary of Terms Appendix: Personal Statements Home Site Map Disclaimers Privacy Notice Accessibility NBAC HHS
— Today's medicine is spiritually deflated and morally adrift; this book explains why and offers an ethical framework to renew and guide practitioners in fulfilling their profession to heal. What is medicine and what is it for? What does it mean to be a good doctor? Answers to these questions are essential both to the practice of medicine and to understanding the moral norms that shape that practice. The Way of Medicine articulates and defends an account of medicine and medical ethics meant to challenge the reigning provider of services model, in which clinicians eschew any claim to know what is good for a patient and instead offer an array of "health care services" for the sake of the patient's subjective well-being. Against this trend, Farr Curlin and Christopher Tollefsen call for practitioners to recover what they call the Way of Medicine, which offers physicians both a path out of the provider of services model and also the moral resources necessary to resist the various political, institutional, and cultural forces that constantly push practitioners and patients into thinking of their relationship in terms of economic exchange. Curlin and Tollefsen offer an accessible account of the ancient ethical tradition from which contemporary medicine and bioethics has departed. Their investigation, drawing on the scholarship of Leon Kass, Alasdair MacIntyre, and John Finnis, leads them to explore the nature of medicine as a practice, health as the end of medicine, the doctor-patient relationship, the rule of double effect in medical practice, and a number of clinical ethical issues from the beginning of life to its end. In the final chapter, the authors take up debates about conscience in medicine, arguing that rather than pretending to not know what is good for patients, physicians should contend conscientiously for the patient's health and, in so doing, contend conscientiously for good medicine. The Way of Medicine is an intellectually serious yet accessible exploration of medical practice written for medical students, health care professionals, and students and scholars of bioethics and medical ethics.
— Abortion, embryo-destructive research, assisted reproductive technologies, artificial wombs, genetically modified babies, physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. These are just a small sampling of the bioethical questions our country will have to address in the coming years. Lying beneath these questions are competing visions of what it means to be a human being and how human beings flourish. Join an academic all-star panel as they discuss the ethics, policies, and philosophies at the core of today's debates. All three scholars served in various capacities on The President's Council on Bioethics, and have written extensively on these issues, including a new Harvard University Press book by Carter Snead, What It Means To Be Human: The Case for the Body in Public Bioethics.
Still haven’t subscribed to The Heritage Foundation on YouTube? Click here ► https://bit.ly/2otKliy
Follow The Heritage Foundation on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/heritagefoundation/
Follow The Heritage Foundation on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Heritage
Follow The Heritage Foundation on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/heritagefoundation/?hl=en
— A Wall Street Journal Top Ten Book of the YearA First Things Books for Christmas SelectionWinner of the Expanded Reason Award“This important work of moral philosophy argues that we are, first and foremost, embodied beings, and that public policy must recognize the limits and gifts that this entails.”—Wall Street JournalThe natural limits of the human body make us vulnerable and dependent on others. Yet law and policy concerning biomedical research and the practice of medicine frequently disregard these stubborn facts. What It Means to Be Human makes the case for a new paradigm, one that better reflects the gifts and challenges of being human.O. Carter Snead proposes a framework for public bioethics rooted in a vision of human identity and flourishing that supports those who are profoundly vulnerable and dependent—children, the disabled, and the elderly. He addresses three complex public matters: abortion, assisted reproductive technology, and end-of-life decisions. Avoiding typical dichotomies of conservative-liberal and secular-religious, Snead recasts debates within his framework of embodiment and dependence. He concludes that if the law is built on premises that reflect our lived experience, it will provide support for the vulnerable.“This remarkable and insightful account of contemporary public bioethics and its individualist assumptions is indispensable reading for anyone with bioethical concerns.”—Alasdair MacIntyre, author of After Virtue“A brilliantly insightful book about how American law has enshrined individual autonomy as the highest moral good...Highly thought-provoking.”—Francis Fukuyama, author of Identity
— TED SINIES CONFERENCE CATHOLIC BISHOPS REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES Techniques that entail the dissociation of husband and wife, by the intrusion of a person other than the couple (donation of sperm or ovum, surrogate uterus), are gravely immoral. These techniques (heterologous) artificial insemination and fertilization) infringe the child's right to be born of a father and mother known to him and bound to each other by marriage. They betray the spouses' "right to become a father and a mother only through each other." (CCC, #2376) Techniques involving only the married couple (homologous artificial insemination and fertilization) are perhaps less reprehensible, yet remain morally unacceptable. They dissociate the sexual act from the procreative act. The act which brings the child into existence is no longer an act by which two persons give themselves to one another, but one that "entrusts the life and identity of the embryo into the power of doctors and biologists and establishes the domination of technology over the origin and destiny of the human person. Such a relationship of domination is in itself contrary to the dignity and equality that must be common to parents and children.” “Under the moral aspect procreation is deprived of its proper perfection when it is not willed as the fruit of the conjugal act, that is to say, of the specific act of the spouses' union....Only respect for the link between the meanings of the conjugal act and respect for the unity of the human being make possible procreation in conformity with the dignity of the person." (CCC, #2377) Respect of the dignity of the human being excludes all experimental manipulation or exploitation of the human embryo. (The Holy See, Charter of the Rights of the Family, 4; b) In recent decades, medical science has made significant strides in understanding human life in its initial stages. Human biological structures and the process of human generation are better known. These developments are certainly positive and worthy of support when they serve to overcome or correct pathologies and succeed in re- establishing the normal functioning of human procreation. On the other hand, they are negative and cannot be utilized when they involve the destruction of human beings or when they employ means which contradict the dignity of the person or when they are used for purposes contrary to the integral good of man. (CDF, DP, September 8, 2008, #4) Certainly, techniques aimed at removing obstacles to natural fertilization, as for example, hormonal treatments for infertility, surgery for endometriosis, unblocking of fallopian tubes or their surgical repair, are licit. All these techniques may be considered authentic treatments because, once the problem causing the infertility has been resolved, Natural Family Planning Program ◆ United States Conference of Catholic Bishops ♦ 3211 Fourth St., NE◆ Washington, DC 20017◆ 202/541-3240♦ [email protected] the married couple is able to engage in conjugal acts resulting in procreation, without the physician's action directly interfering in that act itself. None of these treatments replaces the conjugal act, which alone is worthy of truly responsible procreation. (CDF, DP, September 8, 2008, #13) Cryopreservation is incompatible with the respect owed to human embryos; it presupposes their production in vitro; it exposes them to the serious risk of death or physical harm, since a high percentage does not survive the process of freezing and thawing; it deprives them at least temporarily of maternal reception and gestation; it places them in a situation in which they are susceptible to further offense and manipulation. (CDF, DP, September 8, 2008, #18) [I]t needs to be stated that cryopreservation of oocytes for the purpose of being used in artificial procreation is to be considered morally unacceptable. (CDF, DP, September 8, 2008, #20) Some techniques used in artificial procreation, above all the transfer of multiple embryos into the mother's womb, have caused a significant increase in the frequency of multiple pregnancy. This situation gives rise in turn to the practice of so-called embryo reduction, a procedure in which embryos or fetuses in the womb are directly exterminated. The decision to eliminate human lives, given that it was a human life that was desired in the first place, represents a contradiction that can often lead to suffering and feelings of guilt lasting for years. From the ethical point of view, embryo reduction is an intentional selective abortion. It is in fact the deliberate and direct elimination of one or more innocent human beings in the initial phase of their existence and as such it always constitutes a grave moral disorder. (CDF, DP, September 8, 2008, #21) Preimplantation diagnosis - connected as it is with artificial fertilization, which is itself always intrinsically illicit is directed toward the qualitative selection and consequent destruction of embryos, which constitutes an act of abortion. Preimplantation diagnosis is therefore the expression of a eugenic mentality that "accepts selective abortion in order to prevent the birth of children affected by various types of anomalies. Such an attitude is shameful and utterly reprehensible, since it presumes to measure the value of a human life only within the parameters of 'normality' and physical well-being, thus opening the way to legitimizing infanticide and euthanasia as well." (CDF, DP, September 8, 2008, #22; Quoting EV, #63) Behind every "no" in the difficult task of discerning between good and evil, there shines a great "yes" to the recognition of the dignity and inalienable value of every single and unique human being called into existence. (CDF, DP, September 8, 2008, #37) The spread of technologies of intervention in the processes of human procreation raises very serious moral problems in relation to the respect due to the human being from the moment of conception, to the dignity of the person, of his or her sexuality, and of the transmission of life. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, Conclusion) Natural Family Planning Program ◆ United States Conference of Catholic Bishops ♦ 3211 Fourth St., NE◆ Washington, DC 20017◆ 202/541-3240♦ [email protected] The practice of artificial insemination, when it refers to man cannot be considered either exclusively or principally from a biological and medical point of view to the neglect of morals and law. Artificial fecundation practiced outside of marriage must be condemned purely and simply as immoral. (Pius XII, Allocution to the International Congress of Catholic Doctors, September, 29, 1949) Artificial insemination in marriage-produced with the active element of a third person-is equally immoral, and as such is condemned without appeal. The mere fact that the result which is desired is achieved by such a means does not justify the use of such means; nor does the desire to have a child-a perfectly legitimate desire of husband and wife-suffice to prove the legitimacy of resorting to artificial insemination which would fulfill such a desire. (Pius XII, Allocution to the International Congress of Catholic Doctors, September, 29, 1949) Artificial insemination exceeds the limits of the right which the married couple has acquired by the matrimonial contract, namely, the right to exercise fully their natural sexual capacity in the natural accomplishment of the matrimonial act. The contract in question does not confer on them the right to artificial insemination, for such a right is in no way expressed in the right to the natural conjugal act and cannot be thence deduced. Less still can it be derived from the right to offspring, the primary end of marriage. (Pius XII, Allocution to the Members of the II World Congress of Fertility and Sterility, May 19, 1956) In Our allocution to the World Congress on Fertility and Sterility, May 19, 1956, (we returned to this question) of artificial insemination to condemn once more every type of artificial insemination, because this practice is not included in the rights of spouses and because it is contrary to natural law and to Catholic morality. (Pius XII, Allocution to the Members of the Seventh Congress on Hematology, September 12, 1958) The transmission of human life is the result of a personal and conscious act, and, as such, is subject to the all-holy, inviolable and immutable laws of God, which no man may ignore or disobey. He is not therefore permitted to use certain ways and means which are allowable in the propagation of plant and animal life. (MM, #193) Homologous artificial fertilization, in seeking a procreation which is not the fruit of a specific act of conjugal union, objectively effects an analogous separation between the goods and meanings of marriage. Thus, fertilization is licitly sought when it is the result of a 'conjugal act which is per se suitable for the generation of children to which marriage is ordered by its nature and by which the spouses become one flesh.' But from the moral point of view procreation is deprived of its proper perfection when it is not desired as the fruit of the conjugal act, that is to say of the specific act of the spouses' union. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, II A 2) [Fertilization of a married woman with the sperm of a donor different from her husband and fertilization with the husband's sperm of an ovum not coming from his wife are Natural Family Planning Program ◆ United States Conference of Catholic Bishops ♦ 3211 Fourth St., NE◆ Washington, DC 20017◆ 202/541-3240♦ [email protected] morally illicit. Furthermore, the artificial fertilization of a woman who is unmarried or a widow, whoever the donor may be, cannot be morally justified. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, II A 2) No [surrogate motherhood* is not morally licit], for the same reasons which lead one to reject heterologous artificial fertilization: for it is contrary to the unity of marriage and to the dignity of the procreation of the human person. Surrogate motherhood represents an objective failure to meet the obligations of maternal love, of conjugal fidelity and of responsible motherhood; it offends the dignity and the right of the child to be conceived, carried in the womb, brought into the world and brought up by his own parents; it sets up, to the detriment of families, a division between the physical, psychological and moral elements which constitute those families. * By "surrogate mother" the Instruction means: a) the woman who carries in pregnancy an embryo implanted in her uterus and who is genetically a stranger to the embryo because it has been obtained through the union of the gametes of "donors". She carries the pregnancy with a pledge to surrender the baby once it is born to the party who commissioned or made the agreement for the pregnancy. b) the woman who carries in pregnancy an embryo to whose procreation she has contributed the donation of her own ovum, fertilized through insemination with the sperm of a man other than her husband. She carries the pregnancy with a pledge to surrender the child once it is born to the party who commissioned or made the agreement for the pregnancy. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, II A 3) The one In reality, the origin of a human person is the result of an act of giving. conceived must be the fruit of his parents' love. He cannot be desired or conceived as the product of an intervention of medical or biological techniques; that would be equivalent to reducing him to an object of scientific technology. No one may subject the coming of a child into the world to conditions of technical efficiency which are to be evaluated according to standards of control and dominion. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, II B 4 c) The moral relevance of the link between the meanings of the conjugal act and between the goods of marriage, as well as the unity of the human being and the dignity of his origin, demand that the dignity of his origin, demand that the procreation of a human person be brough about as the fruit of the conjugal act specific to the love between spouses. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, II B 4 c) Medicine which seeks to be ordered to the integral good of the person must respect the specifically human values of sexuality. The doctor is at the service of persons and of human procreation. He does not have the authority to dispose of them or to decide their fate. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, II B 7) Natural Family Planning Program ◆ United States Conference of Catholic Bishops ♦ 3211 Fourth St., NE◆ Washington, DC 20017◆ 202/541-3240♦ [email protected] Science and technology require, for their own intrinsic meaning, an unconditional respect for the fundamental criteria of the moral law: that is to say, they must be at the service of the human person, of his inalienable rights and his true and integral good according to the design and will of God. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, Introduction 2) An intervention on the human body affects not only the tissues, the organs and their functions but also involves the person himself on different levels [corporal and spiritual]. It involves, therefore, perhaps in an implicit but nonetheless real way, a moral significance and responsibility. Pope John Paul II forcefully reaffirmed this to the World Medical Association when he said: "Each human person, in his absolutely unique singularity, is constituted not only by his spirit, but by his body as well. Thus, in the body and through the body, one touches the person himself in his concrete reality. To respect the dignity of man consequently amounts to safeguarding this identity of the man 'corpore et anima unus', as the Second Vatican Council says (GS, #14). It is on the basis of this anthropological vision that one is to find the fundamental criteria for decision- making in the case of procedures which are not strictly therapeutic, as, for example, those aimed at the improvement of the human biological condition." (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, Introduction 3) Applied biology and medicine work together for the integral good of human life when they come to the aid of a person stricken by illness and infirmity and when they respect his or her dignity as a creature of God. No biologist or doctor can reasonably claim, by virtue of his scientific competence, to be able to decide on people's origin and destiny. This norm must be applied in a particular way in the field of sexuality and procreation, in which man and woman actualize the fundamental values of love and life. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, Introduction 3) Advances in technology have now made it possible to procreate apart from sexual relations through the meeting in vitro of the germ-cells previously taken from the man and the woman. But what is technically possible is not for that very reason morally admissible. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, I 4) The connection between in vitro fertilization and the voluntary destruction of human embryos occurs too often. This is significant: through these procedures, with apparently contrary purposes, life and death are subjected to the decision of man, who thus sets himself up as the giver of life and death by decree. This dynamic of violence and domination may remain unnoticed by those very individuals who, in wishing to utilize this procedure, become subject to it themselves. The facts recorded and the cold logic which links them must be taken into consideration for a moral judgment on IVF and ET (in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer): the abortion-mentality which has made this procedure possible thus leads, whether one wants it or not, to man's domination over the life and death of his fellow human beings and can lead to a system of radical eugenics. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, II) The origin of the human being...follows from a procreation that is "linked to the union, Natural Family Planning Program ◆ United States Conference of Catholic Bishops ♦ 3211 Fourth St., NE◆ Washington, DC 20017◆ 202/541-3240♦ [email protected]
— Given the risks of assisted reproductive technologies and gene-editing technologies for both individuals and society as a whole, a hands-off, libertarian approach to these issues is ethically irresponsible. Because these technologies imply a radical transformation in our understanding of the meaning
— This book takes the contentious issue of designer babies and argues against the liberal eugenic current of bioethics that commends the logic and choice regimes of selective reproduction. Against conceptions of Procreative Beneficence that trade on a disregard for the gifts of maternal bodies, it seeks to recover a thought of maternal giving and a more hospitable ethic of generational beneficence. Exploring themes of responsibility, gift and natality, the book refigures the experience of reproduction as the site of an ethical response to future generations, where refusal to choose one’s children is one virtuous response. The book will appeal to anyone with an interest in reproductive ethics, feminist thought and those seeking principled grounds for resisting the technologies of choosing children.