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Human Cloning

Human cloning occurs naturally as in the case of monozygotic twinning where a single fertilized egg (zygote) splits to produce two genetically identical individuals. The process of artificial human cloning would involve the technique of somatic cell nuclear transplant (SCNT), taking an egg cell, removing its genetic material and implanting into it the nucleus of a body cell from the donor. The resulting entity has only one parent (the donor) and is genetically identical to it. There are two purposes for which this technique might be used. First, therapeutic cloning to produce an embryo that is then destroyed harvesting stem cells from it for use in and second, reproductive cloning to implant it in a host womb and bring it to term. The technique and the purposes to which it is put raise a number of moral questions. Eggs for the process are produced either by induced superovulation and/or bought from young women in poorer countries. The first involves physical risks, the second questions of instrumentalization and exploitation. In some case the donor somatic cell is taken from aborted foetuses, and the termination of the cloned embryo is itself a case of abortion. The use of surrogate mother’s is open to similar objects to the acquisition of eggs, and the use of cloning to acquire better quality babies is or tends towards the commodification of human life. From a utilitarian perspective, however, these and other practices are justified by the principle of the greatest happiness of the greatest number. While there have been several claims to have cloned human beings there is no confirmatory evidence of this yet having taken place.

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Anderson and Christopher Tollefsen on distinctions in an age of novelty The Myth of Multitasking Christine Rosen on doing too much at once The Technology of Memory James Poulos on forgetting how to remember Montesquieu and the Motives for Science The Motives That Ought to Encourage Us to the Sciences A discourse by Montesquieu translated for the first time into English by Diana Schaub Montesquieu’s Popular Science Diana Schaub on the study of science and the life of the mind Reviews and Reconsiderations Einstein’s Quest for Truth Algis Valiunas on the mind of the man behind relativity At Home with Down Syndrome Caitrin Nicol reads memoirs of gratitude Looking Ahead An Olympic Fiasco Looking Back A Debate Still Patently Alive buy issue No. 21Summer 2008 No. 21 Summer 2008 Essays Nuclear Policy and the Presidential Election Henry Sokolski on nuclear matters and why they matter Conservatives, Climate Change, and the Carbon Tax Jim Manzi on the cost of thinking impractically about potential risk Donated Generation Cheryl Miller on releasing the identities of egg and sperm donors Rethinking Public Opinion Thomas Fitzgerald on the problems of polling Technology, Culture, and Virtue Patrick J. Deneen on Wendell Berry’s unnatured man Reviews and Reconsiderations Is Stupid Making Us Google? James Bowman on the “Dumbest Generation” We Are the Change We’ve Been Waiting For Sebastian Waisman on the “Millennial Generation” The World Made New Rita Koganzon on Second Life and real life The Brat Pack of Quantum Mechanics John Derbsyhire on a pivotal year for modern physics The Prudence of Neuroscience Ivan Kenneally reviews The Heart of Judgment State of the Art An Animal to Save the World Jonathan H. Adler Taking the Earth’s Temperature Jordan R. 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Sulmasy reviews Jonathan Imber’s Trusting Doctors State of the Art Fighting Fake Drugs Roger Bate Test Ban Treaty, Take Two Christopher A. Ford Romancing the Atom Robert R. Johnson China’s Organ Market S. Elizabeth Forsythe Nutrition and Tradition John Schwenkler Looking Ahead Get Moving on Yucca Looking Back Our Petroleum Prosperity buy issue No. 26Fall 2009 - Winter 2010 No. 26 Fall 2009 - Winter 2010 Essays The Future of Chemical Weapons Jonathan B. Tucker on a neglected threat and what to do about it The Financial Crisis and the Scientific Mindset Paul J. Cella III on shadow banking and the returns of rationalism On Bioethics in Public Gilbert Meilaender reflects on the method and legacy of the President’s Council on Bioethics Science, the Humanities, and the University Science and the Decline of the Liberal Arts Patrick J. Deneen The Technocratic American University Ivan Kenneally Human Dignity and Higher Education Peter Augustine Lawler The Soul of the Scientist of Man Shilo Brooks The Ivy League Lament Rita Koganzon Reviews and Reconsiderations Darwin’s World of Pain and Wonder Algis Valiunas on the great scientist’s spiritual torment Cheap Thrills Noemie Emery defends the American consumer The Formation of Character David Skinner on how we write and who we are Why We Walk Jennifer Graf Groneberg on the origins of man and the end of walking Hawthorne Series Nathaniel Hawthorne and the Spirit of Science The Editors kick off a series on scientific progress and the American literary genius Wasting the Water of Life Kevin Laskowski on “Dr. Heidegger’s Experiment” and the allure of immortality Dr. Heidegger’s Experiment Online only: A new critical edition of Hawthorne’s story Looking Ahead Bioethics: Left, Right, and Wrong Looking Back The Bhopal Injustice buy issue No. 27Spring 2010 No. 27 Spring 2010 Essays Why Not Nuclear Disarmament? 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          Home About Us Meetings Reports Transcripts Background Materials Former Bioethics Commissions   Human Cloning and Human Dignity: An Ethical Inquiry The President's Council on Bioethics Washington, D.C., July 2002   Full Document (PDF: 3.43 MB) Full Document (HTML: 910 KB) Table of Contents: Letter of Transmittal to the President     Members of the President's Council on Bioethics     Council Staff and Consultants Preface Executive Summary Chapter One: The Meaning of Human Cloning: An Overview Chapter Two: Historical Aspects of Cloning Chapter Three: On Terminology Chapter Four: Scientific Background Chapter Five: The Ethics of Cloning-to-Produce-Children Chapter Six: The Ethics of Cloning-for-Biomedical-Research Chapter Seven: Public Policy Options Chapter Eight: Policy Recommendations Bibliography Glossary of Terms Appendix: Personal Statements             Home Site Map Disclaimers Privacy Notice Accessibility NBAC HHS      

  • The Way of Medicine: Ethics and the Healing Profession

    Today's medicine is spiritually deflated and morally adrift; this book explains why and offers an ethical framework to renew and guide practitioners in fulfilling their profession to heal. What is medicine and what is it for? What does it mean to be a good doctor? Answers to these questions are essential both to the practice of medicine and to understanding the moral norms that shape that practice. The Way of Medicine articulates and defends an account of medicine and medical ethics meant to challenge the reigning provider of services model, in which clinicians eschew any claim to know what is good for a patient and instead offer an array of "health care services" for the sake of the patient's subjective well-being. Against this trend, Farr Curlin and Christopher Tollefsen call for practitioners to recover what they call the Way of Medicine, which offers physicians both a path out of the provider of services model and also the moral resources necessary to resist the various political, institutional, and cultural forces that constantly push practitioners and patients into thinking of their relationship in terms of economic exchange. Curlin and Tollefsen offer an accessible account of the ancient ethical tradition from which contemporary medicine and bioethics has departed. Their investigation, drawing on the scholarship of Leon Kass, Alasdair MacIntyre, and John Finnis, leads them to explore the nature of medicine as a practice, health as the end of medicine, the doctor-patient relationship, the rule of double effect in medical practice, and a number of clinical ethical issues from the beginning of life to its end. In the final chapter, the authors take up debates about conscience in medicine, arguing that rather than pretending to not know what is good for patients, physicians should contend conscientiously for the patient's health and, in so doing, contend conscientiously for good medicine. The Way of Medicine is an intellectually serious yet accessible exploration of medical practice written for medical students, health care professionals, and students and scholars of bioethics and medical ethics.

  • What It Means to be Human: The Case for the Body in Public Bioethics

    Abortion, embryo-destructive research, assisted reproductive technologies, artificial wombs, genetically modified babies, physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. These are just a small sampling of the bioethical questions our country will have to address in the coming years. Lying beneath these questions are competing visions of what it means to be a human being and how human beings flourish. Join an academic all-star panel as they discuss the ethics, policies, and philosophies at the core of today's debates. All three scholars served in various capacities on The President's Council on Bioethics, and have written extensively on these issues, including a new Harvard University Press book by Carter Snead, What It Means To Be Human: The Case for the Body in Public Bioethics. Still haven’t subscribed to The Heritage Foundation on YouTube? Click here ► https://bit.ly/2otKliy Follow The Heritage Foundation on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/heritagefoundation/ Follow The Heritage Foundation on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Heritage Follow The Heritage Foundation on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/heritagefoundation/?hl=en

  • What It Means to Be Human: The Case for the Body in Public Bioethics

    A Wall Street Journal Top Ten Book of the YearA First Things Books for Christmas SelectionWinner of the Expanded Reason Award“This important work of moral philosophy argues that we are, first and foremost, embodied beings, and that public policy must recognize the limits and gifts that this entails.”—Wall Street JournalThe natural limits of the human body make us vulnerable and dependent on others. Yet law and policy concerning biomedical research and the practice of medicine frequently disregard these stubborn facts. What It Means to Be Human makes the case for a new paradigm, one that better reflects the gifts and challenges of being human.O. Carter Snead proposes a framework for public bioethics rooted in a vision of human identity and flourishing that supports those who are profoundly vulnerable and dependent—children, the disabled, and the elderly. He addresses three complex public matters: abortion, assisted reproductive technology, and end-of-life decisions. Avoiding typical dichotomies of conservative-liberal and secular-religious, Snead recasts debates within his framework of embodiment and dependence. He concludes that if the law is built on premises that reflect our lived experience, it will provide support for the vulnerable.“This remarkable and insightful account of contemporary public bioethics and its individualist assumptions is indispensable reading for anyone with bioethical concerns.”—Alasdair MacIntyre, author of After Virtue“A brilliantly insightful book about how American law has enshrined individual autonomy as the highest moral good...Highly thought-provoking.”—Francis Fukuyama, author of Identity

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    TED SINIES CONFERENCE CATHOLIC BISHOPS REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES Techniques that entail the dissociation of husband and wife, by the intrusion of a person other than the couple (donation of sperm or ovum, surrogate uterus), are gravely immoral. These techniques (heterologous) artificial insemination and fertilization) infringe the child's right to be born of a father and mother known to him and bound to each other by marriage. They betray the spouses' "right to become a father and a mother only through each other." (CCC, #2376) Techniques involving only the married couple (homologous artificial insemination and fertilization) are perhaps less reprehensible, yet remain morally unacceptable. They dissociate the sexual act from the procreative act. The act which brings the child into existence is no longer an act by which two persons give themselves to one another, but one that "entrusts the life and identity of the embryo into the power of doctors and biologists and establishes the domination of technology over the origin and destiny of the human person. Such a relationship of domination is in itself contrary to the dignity and equality that must be common to parents and children.” “Under the moral aspect procreation is deprived of its proper perfection when it is not willed as the fruit of the conjugal act, that is to say, of the specific act of the spouses' union....Only respect for the link between the meanings of the conjugal act and respect for the unity of the human being make possible procreation in conformity with the dignity of the person." (CCC, #2377) Respect of the dignity of the human being excludes all experimental manipulation or exploitation of the human embryo. (The Holy See, Charter of the Rights of the Family, 4; b) In recent decades, medical science has made significant strides in understanding human life in its initial stages. Human biological structures and the process of human generation are better known. These developments are certainly positive and worthy of support when they serve to overcome or correct pathologies and succeed in re- establishing the normal functioning of human procreation. On the other hand, they are negative and cannot be utilized when they involve the destruction of human beings or when they employ means which contradict the dignity of the person or when they are used for purposes contrary to the integral good of man. (CDF, DP, September 8, 2008, #4) Certainly, techniques aimed at removing obstacles to natural fertilization, as for example, hormonal treatments for infertility, surgery for endometriosis, unblocking of fallopian tubes or their surgical repair, are licit. All these techniques may be considered authentic treatments because, once the problem causing the infertility has been resolved, Natural Family Planning Program ◆ United States Conference of Catholic Bishops ♦ 3211 Fourth St., NE◆ Washington, DC 20017◆ 202/541-3240♦ [email protected] the married couple is able to engage in conjugal acts resulting in procreation, without the physician's action directly interfering in that act itself. None of these treatments replaces the conjugal act, which alone is worthy of truly responsible procreation. (CDF, DP, September 8, 2008, #13) Cryopreservation is incompatible with the respect owed to human embryos; it presupposes their production in vitro; it exposes them to the serious risk of death or physical harm, since a high percentage does not survive the process of freezing and thawing; it deprives them at least temporarily of maternal reception and gestation; it places them in a situation in which they are susceptible to further offense and manipulation. (CDF, DP, September 8, 2008, #18) [I]t needs to be stated that cryopreservation of oocytes for the purpose of being used in artificial procreation is to be considered morally unacceptable. (CDF, DP, September 8, 2008, #20) Some techniques used in artificial procreation, above all the transfer of multiple embryos into the mother's womb, have caused a significant increase in the frequency of multiple pregnancy. This situation gives rise in turn to the practice of so-called embryo reduction, a procedure in which embryos or fetuses in the womb are directly exterminated. The decision to eliminate human lives, given that it was a human life that was desired in the first place, represents a contradiction that can often lead to suffering and feelings of guilt lasting for years. From the ethical point of view, embryo reduction is an intentional selective abortion. It is in fact the deliberate and direct elimination of one or more innocent human beings in the initial phase of their existence and as such it always constitutes a grave moral disorder. (CDF, DP, September 8, 2008, #21) Preimplantation diagnosis - connected as it is with artificial fertilization, which is itself always intrinsically illicit is directed toward the qualitative selection and consequent destruction of embryos, which constitutes an act of abortion. Preimplantation diagnosis is therefore the expression of a eugenic mentality that "accepts selective abortion in order to prevent the birth of children affected by various types of anomalies. Such an attitude is shameful and utterly reprehensible, since it presumes to measure the value of a human life only within the parameters of 'normality' and physical well-being, thus opening the way to legitimizing infanticide and euthanasia as well." (CDF, DP, September 8, 2008, #22; Quoting EV, #63) Behind every "no" in the difficult task of discerning between good and evil, there shines a great "yes" to the recognition of the dignity and inalienable value of every single and unique human being called into existence. (CDF, DP, September 8, 2008, #37) The spread of technologies of intervention in the processes of human procreation raises very serious moral problems in relation to the respect due to the human being from the moment of conception, to the dignity of the person, of his or her sexuality, and of the transmission of life. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, Conclusion) Natural Family Planning Program ◆ United States Conference of Catholic Bishops ♦ 3211 Fourth St., NE◆ Washington, DC 20017◆ 202/541-3240♦ [email protected] The practice of artificial insemination, when it refers to man cannot be considered either exclusively or principally from a biological and medical point of view to the neglect of morals and law. Artificial fecundation practiced outside of marriage must be condemned purely and simply as immoral. (Pius XII, Allocution to the International Congress of Catholic Doctors, September, 29, 1949) Artificial insemination in marriage-produced with the active element of a third person-is equally immoral, and as such is condemned without appeal. The mere fact that the result which is desired is achieved by such a means does not justify the use of such means; nor does the desire to have a child-a perfectly legitimate desire of husband and wife-suffice to prove the legitimacy of resorting to artificial insemination which would fulfill such a desire. (Pius XII, Allocution to the International Congress of Catholic Doctors, September, 29, 1949) Artificial insemination exceeds the limits of the right which the married couple has acquired by the matrimonial contract, namely, the right to exercise fully their natural sexual capacity in the natural accomplishment of the matrimonial act. The contract in question does not confer on them the right to artificial insemination, for such a right is in no way expressed in the right to the natural conjugal act and cannot be thence deduced. Less still can it be derived from the right to offspring, the primary end of marriage. (Pius XII, Allocution to the Members of the II World Congress of Fertility and Sterility, May 19, 1956) In Our allocution to the World Congress on Fertility and Sterility, May 19, 1956, (we returned to this question) of artificial insemination to condemn once more every type of artificial insemination, because this practice is not included in the rights of spouses and because it is contrary to natural law and to Catholic morality. (Pius XII, Allocution to the Members of the Seventh Congress on Hematology, September 12, 1958) The transmission of human life is the result of a personal and conscious act, and, as such, is subject to the all-holy, inviolable and immutable laws of God, which no man may ignore or disobey. He is not therefore permitted to use certain ways and means which are allowable in the propagation of plant and animal life. (MM, #193) Homologous artificial fertilization, in seeking a procreation which is not the fruit of a specific act of conjugal union, objectively effects an analogous separation between the goods and meanings of marriage. Thus, fertilization is licitly sought when it is the result of a 'conjugal act which is per se suitable for the generation of children to which marriage is ordered by its nature and by which the spouses become one flesh.' But from the moral point of view procreation is deprived of its proper perfection when it is not desired as the fruit of the conjugal act, that is to say of the specific act of the spouses' union. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, II A 2) [Fertilization of a married woman with the sperm of a donor different from her husband and fertilization with the husband's sperm of an ovum not coming from his wife are Natural Family Planning Program ◆ United States Conference of Catholic Bishops ♦ 3211 Fourth St., NE◆ Washington, DC 20017◆ 202/541-3240♦ [email protected] morally illicit. Furthermore, the artificial fertilization of a woman who is unmarried or a widow, whoever the donor may be, cannot be morally justified. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, II A 2) No [surrogate motherhood* is not morally licit], for the same reasons which lead one to reject heterologous artificial fertilization: for it is contrary to the unity of marriage and to the dignity of the procreation of the human person. Surrogate motherhood represents an objective failure to meet the obligations of maternal love, of conjugal fidelity and of responsible motherhood; it offends the dignity and the right of the child to be conceived, carried in the womb, brought into the world and brought up by his own parents; it sets up, to the detriment of families, a division between the physical, psychological and moral elements which constitute those families. * By "surrogate mother" the Instruction means: a) the woman who carries in pregnancy an embryo implanted in her uterus and who is genetically a stranger to the embryo because it has been obtained through the union of the gametes of "donors". She carries the pregnancy with a pledge to surrender the baby once it is born to the party who commissioned or made the agreement for the pregnancy. b) the woman who carries in pregnancy an embryo to whose procreation she has contributed the donation of her own ovum, fertilized through insemination with the sperm of a man other than her husband. She carries the pregnancy with a pledge to surrender the child once it is born to the party who commissioned or made the agreement for the pregnancy. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, II A 3) The one In reality, the origin of a human person is the result of an act of giving. conceived must be the fruit of his parents' love. He cannot be desired or conceived as the product of an intervention of medical or biological techniques; that would be equivalent to reducing him to an object of scientific technology. No one may subject the coming of a child into the world to conditions of technical efficiency which are to be evaluated according to standards of control and dominion. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, II B 4 c) The moral relevance of the link between the meanings of the conjugal act and between the goods of marriage, as well as the unity of the human being and the dignity of his origin, demand that the dignity of his origin, demand that the procreation of a human person be brough about as the fruit of the conjugal act specific to the love between spouses. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, II B 4 c) Medicine which seeks to be ordered to the integral good of the person must respect the specifically human values of sexuality. The doctor is at the service of persons and of human procreation. He does not have the authority to dispose of them or to decide their fate. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, II B 7) Natural Family Planning Program ◆ United States Conference of Catholic Bishops ♦ 3211 Fourth St., NE◆ Washington, DC 20017◆ 202/541-3240♦ [email protected] Science and technology require, for their own intrinsic meaning, an unconditional respect for the fundamental criteria of the moral law: that is to say, they must be at the service of the human person, of his inalienable rights and his true and integral good according to the design and will of God. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, Introduction 2) An intervention on the human body affects not only the tissues, the organs and their functions but also involves the person himself on different levels [corporal and spiritual]. It involves, therefore, perhaps in an implicit but nonetheless real way, a moral significance and responsibility. Pope John Paul II forcefully reaffirmed this to the World Medical Association when he said: "Each human person, in his absolutely unique singularity, is constituted not only by his spirit, but by his body as well. Thus, in the body and through the body, one touches the person himself in his concrete reality. To respect the dignity of man consequently amounts to safeguarding this identity of the man 'corpore et anima unus', as the Second Vatican Council says (GS, #14). It is on the basis of this anthropological vision that one is to find the fundamental criteria for decision- making in the case of procedures which are not strictly therapeutic, as, for example, those aimed at the improvement of the human biological condition." (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, Introduction 3) Applied biology and medicine work together for the integral good of human life when they come to the aid of a person stricken by illness and infirmity and when they respect his or her dignity as a creature of God. No biologist or doctor can reasonably claim, by virtue of his scientific competence, to be able to decide on people's origin and destiny. This norm must be applied in a particular way in the field of sexuality and procreation, in which man and woman actualize the fundamental values of love and life. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, Introduction 3) Advances in technology have now made it possible to procreate apart from sexual relations through the meeting in vitro of the germ-cells previously taken from the man and the woman. But what is technically possible is not for that very reason morally admissible. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, I 4) The connection between in vitro fertilization and the voluntary destruction of human embryos occurs too often. This is significant: through these procedures, with apparently contrary purposes, life and death are subjected to the decision of man, who thus sets himself up as the giver of life and death by decree. This dynamic of violence and domination may remain unnoticed by those very individuals who, in wishing to utilize this procedure, become subject to it themselves. The facts recorded and the cold logic which links them must be taken into consideration for a moral judgment on IVF and ET (in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer): the abortion-mentality which has made this procedure possible thus leads, whether one wants it or not, to man's domination over the life and death of his fellow human beings and can lead to a system of radical eugenics. (CDF, DV, February 22, 1987, II) The origin of the human being...follows from a procreation that is "linked to the union, Natural Family Planning Program ◆ United States Conference of Catholic Bishops ♦ 3211 Fourth St., NE◆ Washington, DC 20017◆ 202/541-3240♦ [email protected]

  • https://www.thepublicdiscourse.com

    Given the risks of assisted reproductive technologies and gene-editing technologies for both individuals and society as a whole, a hands-off, libertarian approach to these issues is ethically irresponsible. Because these technologies imply a radical transformation in our understanding of the meaning

  • The Ethics of Choosing Children

    This book takes the contentious issue of designer babies and argues against the liberal eugenic current of bioethics that commends the logic and choice regimes of selective reproduction. Against conceptions of Procreative Beneficence that trade on a disregard for the gifts of maternal bodies, it seeks to recover a thought of maternal giving and a more hospitable ethic of generational beneficence. Exploring themes of responsibility, gift and natality, the book refigures the experience of reproduction as the site of an ethical response to future generations, where refusal to choose one’s children is one virtuous response. The book will appeal to anyone with an interest in reproductive ethics, feminist thought and those seeking principled grounds for resisting the technologies of choosing children.